Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial Resistance


  • India faces a significant burden from infectious diseases and ranks second in global antibiotic consumption, increasing by 47% from 2010 to 2020.
  • Misuse and abuse of antibiotics is a key driver for development of AMR.

What are Antibiotics?

  • Antibiotics are societal drugs, distinct from other medications.
  • Their misuse not only affects individual health but also contributes significantly to the growing global threat of AMR, impacting public health & society at large.
  • Antimicrobials – including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics – are medicines used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and plants.
  • Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.

What is Antimicrobial Resistance?

  • Antimicrobial Resistance occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites evolve and become resistant to the drugs designed to kill them.
  • Misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals, poor infection prevention, and lack of clean water and sanitation all contribute to the alarming rise of AMR.
  • Free over-the counter availability and self-medication by the patients fuel this rise.

Syllabus: Prelims + Mains; GS II – Health