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FLORICULTURE

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FLORICULTURE

BACKGROUND OF FLORICULTURE SECTOR:

  • The liberalised seed policy introduced in the late 1980s, coupled with the 1991 reforms.
  • The policy paved the way for the advanced protected cultivation technology in floriculture.
  • Since then, floriculture has been a potential money ­spinner and employment­ generator for farmers especially in rain­fed areas, hilly regions, and arid zones.
  • Floriculture has great scope in bio ­aesthetic planning, landscaping, and gardening, apart from applications in horticultural therapy.
  • The main flower growing States are Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

  • According to APEDA, India’s export of floriculture produce was 21,024 tonnes, valued at ₹708 crore in 2022-­23.
  • Indian floriculture industry comprises flowers such as Rose, Tuberose, Glads, Anthurium, Carnations, Marigold, etc.

ADVANTAGES OF FLORICULTURE:

  • Floriculture does not require artificial lighting or heating for green house production of flowers owing to ample sunlight in India and moderate temperature during winter season.
  • Also, India is strategically located between two major markets — Europe and East Asia.
  • There is enormous potential to export flowers to temperate countries during the peak winter season.
  • The government also identified floriculture as one of the export thrust areas.
  • The European nations reduced import duty on floricultural products over time.
  • Floriculture has tremendous scope for agri­preneurship.

CHALLENGES IN FLORICULTURE SECTOR:

  • Although the floriculture business has been growing in the world at 9 per cent per annum, India’s share in the international market is a miniscule 1 percent.
  • While the Netherlands and Germany are leading producers of flowers, India holds the 14th rank.
  • Inadequate infrastructure facilities like greenhouse/poly houses and cold chains, lack of quality consciousness among exporters, limited knowledge on advanced cultivation practices and absence of market intelligence.
  • Besides, floriculture suffers from insufficient R&D expenditure especially on new varieties, advanced cultivation methods, post­harvest management, etc.

STEPS NEEDED TO BE TAKEN:

  • International air cargo facilities may be developed at catchment areas of production by leveraging UDAAN scheme of the government.
  • Besides, the farmers can take advantage of various schemes of National Horticulture Mission.
  • Ramping up cold storage facilities is also vital.

  • Institutional (micro) finance may be improved to support farmers.
  • Exports can be promoted through e­-commerce, fairs/exhibitions, and international exposure visits.

WAY FORWARD:

  • Indian floriculture sector is a wellspring of profit for all potential investors as new policies have paved the way for the development of export-oriented production of flowers and growth in the industry is revolutionary and inspiring.

SYLLABUS: MAINS, GS-3, AGRICULTURE

SOURCE: Businessline

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