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  • Recently a fascinating fusion of rock art is found in A.P.’s Rudragiri by Archaeological Survey of India.


  • Rudragiri hillock in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, is a home to celebrat­ed historical past and re­markable archaeological monuments.
  • This site unveils a fasci­nating combination of pre­ historic rock paintings from the Mesolithic period and exquisite artwork from the Kakatiya dynasty.
  • Rudragiri, nestled amidst the Eastern Ghats, features five naturally formed rock shelters at its foothills.
  • These shelters served as living quarters for people during the Mesolithic age around 5000 B.C..
  • They bear witness to the lu­minous rock paintings of that era.
  • Interestingly, two natu­ral caves at the southern end of the hillock also exhi­bit exceptional murals from the renowned Kakati­ya kingdom.


  • These caves showcase the artistic brilliance of the Kakatiya period.
  • While ma­ny have suffered damage over time due to exposure to the elements, some sketches and outlines have managed to survive.
  • The paintings, adorned with a variety of colours derived from white kaolin and dif­ferent pigments, depict captivating scenes from the epic Ramayana.
  • Despite the impact of nature’s wrath, fragments of these paintings offer valuable insights into their creation during the 13th century A.D.
  • The first cave, starting from the southern end of the hillock, presents a narrative mural portraying the intense battle between the Vanara brothers — Vali and Sugriva.
  • In the middle cave, a grand sketch of Hanuman, accompanied by sacred symbols of the conch (Sankha) and the fire altar (Yagna Vedi), captures visi­tors’ attention.

  • Hanuman is depicted carrying the Sanjivani hill in his hand, symbolising his mission to save Lakshmana’s life.
  • The third cave houses the prehistoric rock paint­ings from the Mesolithic era.
  • Interestingly, the Ka­katiya artist chose the same rock shelter to supe­rimpose the elegant figure of Hanuman, who is por­trayed in a unique ‘Anjali’ posture, folding his hands in a divine offering.
  • Remarkably, the Ra­mayana figures neither overshadow the Mesolithic drawings nor diminish their scenic beauty.


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