Why in news:
- The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched the first of the second-generation satellites for its navigation constellation successfully.
- The 2,232 kg satellite, the heaviest in the constellation, was launched by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket that lifted off from Sriharikota.
- To meet the positioning, navigation and timing requirements of the nation, ISRO has established a regional navigation satellite system called Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC).
- NavIC was erstwhile known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
- NavIC is designed with a constellation of 7 satellitesand a network of ground stations operating 24 x 7.
- Three satellites of the constellation are placed in geostationary orbit and four satellites are placed in inclined geosynchronous orbit.
- NavIC offers two services:
- Standard Position Service (SPS) for civilian users and
- Restricted Service (RS) for strategic users.
- These two services are provided in both L5 (1176.45 MHz) and S band (2498.028 MHz).
- NavIC coverage area includes India and a region up to 1500 km beyond Indian boundary.
- NavIC signals are designed to provide user position accuracy better than 20m and timing accuracy better than 50ns.
- NavIC SPS signals are interoperable with the other global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signalsnamely GPS,Glonass,Galileo, and BeiDou.
- Transportation (terrestrial, aerial and marine)
- Location based services
- Personal mobility
- Resource monitoring
- Surveying and geodesy
- Scientific research
- Time dissemination and synchronisation
- Safety-of-life alert dissemination
What is the advantage of having a regional navigation system?
- India is the only country that has a regional satellite-based navigation system.
- There are four global satellite-based navigation systems the American GPS, the Russian GLONASS (GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema), the European Galileo, and the Chinese Beidou.
- Japan has a four-satellite system that can augment GPS signals over the country, similar to India’s GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation).
- NavIC provides coverage over the Indian landmass and up to a radius of 1,500 km around it.
- In this region, NavIC signals will likely be available in even hard-to-reach areas.
- Unlike GPS, NavIC uses satellites in high geo-stationery orbit — the satellites move at a constant speed relative to Earth, so they are always looking over the same region on Earth.
- NavIC signals come to India at a 90-degree angle, making it easier for them to reach devices located even in congested areas, dense forests, or mountains.
- GPS signals are received over India at an angle.
Syllabus: Prelims; Science and Technology