NavIC satellite

NavIC satellite

Why in news:

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched the first of the second-generation satellites for its navigation constellation successfully.

  • The 2,232 kg satellite, the heaviest in the constellation, was launched by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket that lifted off from Sriharikota.

About NAVIC:

  • To meet the positioning, navigation and timing requirements of the nation, ISRO has established a regional navigation satellite system called Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC).
  • NavIC was erstwhile known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

  • NavIC is designed with a constellation of 7 satellitesand a network of ground stations operating 24 x 7.
  • Three satellites of the constellation are placed in geostationary orbit and four satellites are placed in inclined geosynchronous orbit.
  • NavIC offers two services:
    • Standard Position Service (SPS) for civilian users and
    • Restricted Service (RS) for strategic users.
    • These two services are provided in both L5 (1176.45 MHz) and S band (2498.028 MHz).
  • NavIC coverage area includes India and a region up to 1500 km beyond Indian boundary.
  • NavIC signals are designed to provide user position accuracy better than 20m and timing accuracy better than 50ns.
  • NavIC SPS signals are interoperable with the other global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signalsnamely GPS,Glonass,Galileo, and BeiDou.

Few applications:

  • Transportation (terrestrial, aerial and marine)
  • Location based services
  • Personal mobility
  • Resource monitoring
  • Surveying and geodesy
  • Scientific research
  • Time dissemination and synchronisation
  • Safety-of-life alert dissemination

What is the advantage of having a regional navigation system?

  • India is the only country that has a regional satellite-based navigation system.
  • There are four global satellite-based navigation systems the American GPS, the Russian GLONASS (GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema), the European Galileo, and the Chinese Beidou.
  • Japan has a four-satellite system that can augment GPS signals over the country, similar to India’s GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation).
  • NavIC provides coverage over the Indian landmass and up to a radius of 1,500 km around it.
  • In this region, NavIC signals will likely be available in even hard-to-reach areas.
  • Unlike GPS, NavIC uses satellites in high geo-stationery orbit — the satellites move at a constant speed relative to Earth, so they are always looking over the same region on Earth.
  • NavIC signals come to India at a 90-degree angle, making it easier for them to reach devices located even in congested areas, dense forests, or mountains.
  • GPS signals are received over India at an angle.

Syllabus: Prelims; Science and Technology