WHY IN NEWS :
- India became the 27th signatory to the Artemis Accords, a set of non-binding guidelines that underpin the Artemis programme.
WHAT ARE ARTEMIS ACCORDS ?
- The Artemis Accords is a non-binding multilateral arrangement between the United States government and other world governments.
- It is an American-led effort to return humans to the Moon by 2025, with the ultimate goal of expanding space exploration to Mars and beyond.
- As of June 29, 2023, 27 countries and one territory have signed the accords, including ten in Europe, eight in Asia, three in North America. three in South America, two in Oceania and two in Africa.
- The Accords were signed on 13 October 2020 by representatives of the national space agencies of eight countries:
Austraia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, then United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.
- Additional signatories include Ukraine, South Korea, New Zealand, Brazil, Poland, Mexico, Israel, Romania, Bahrain, Singapore, Colombia, France, Saudi Arabia, Rwanda Nigeria, Czech Republic, Spain, Ecuador, and India.
- The Accords remain open for signature indefinitely, as NASA anticipates other nations will join.
PROVISIONS OF THE ACCORDS :
- The Accords are a single document, signed by each country that commits to the Accords’ principles.
- Bilateral agreements between space agencies for specific operations on the Moon.
- Affirm that cooperative activities under these Accords should be exclusively for peaceful purposes and in accordance with relevant international law.
- Confirm a commitment to transparency and to share scientific information, consistent with Article XI of the Outer Space Treaty.
- Call for a commitment to use reasonable efforts to utilize current interoperability standards for space-based infrastructure.
- To establish standards when they do not exist or are inadequate.
- Call for a commitment to take all reasonable efforts to render necessary assistance to personnel in outer space who are in distress and according to their obligations under the Rescure and Return Agreement.
- Specify responsibility for the registration of objects in space, as required by the Registration Convention.
SYLLABUS: PRELIMS, CURRENT AFFAIRS