IUCN Red List
Why in news :
- Recently, Three medicinal plant species found in the Himalayas were placed in IUCN Red list of Threatened species following a recent assessment.
- The species are Meizotropis pellita, Fritilloria cirrhosa, Dactylorhiza hatagirea.
Meizotropis pellita :
- This plant species has been assessed as critically endangered.
- It is commonly known as Patwa.
- It is a perennial shrub with restricted distribution.
- It is endemic to
- It is categorized as Critically Endangered based on its limited area of occupancy which is less than 10 sq.km
- The species has been threatened by deforestation, habitat fragmentation and forest fires.
Significance of this plant :
- The essential oil extracted from the leaves has strong antioxidants.
- It can substitute as a natural antioxidants compared to synthetic ones in pharmaceutical Industries.
Fritilloria cirrhosa (Himalayan fritillary) :
- It is a perennial bulbous herb.
- It is an Asian species of herbaceous plant in the lily family, native to China, the Indian Subcontinent (Nepal, Pakistan, India, Bhutan), and Myanmar.
- It has declined nearly atleast 30% of its population over the assessment period ( 22 to 26 years).
- It has been declared as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red list.
- The main reasons to be declared as Vulnerable are rate of decline, long generation length, poor germination potential, high trade value, extensive harvesting pressure and illegal trade.
Significance of the species :
- In China, the species is used for the treatment of bronchial disorders and pneumonia.
- It is also used as a strong cough suppressant.
Dactylorhiza hatagirea(Salampanja) :
- Dactylorhiza hatagireais a species of orchid generally found growing in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to SE Tibet, at altitudes of 2,800–4,000 metres.
- The plant is well known for its medicinal value.
- It is strictly prohibited for collection and sale, but can be found easily around Nepal.
- It has been assessed as Endangered in the IUCN Red list.
- It is threatened by habitat loss, livestock grazing, deforestation and climate change.
Significance of this plant species :
- It is extensively used in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and other alternative systems of medicine.
- It can cure dysentery, gastritis, chronic fever, cough and stomach aches.
Syllabus : Prelims + Mains; GS3 – Environment