Tribes of Jharkhand
- The tribes of Jharkhand consist of 32 scheduled tribes inhabiting the Jharkhand state in India.
- In 1872, only 18 tribes were counted among the schedule tribes from which Banjara, Bhatudi, Chik Baraik and Mahil were marked as semi-Hindu aboriginal and Kora as proletariat Hindu.
- In the 1931 census, including above four semi-Hindu aboriginal and Kora, a proletariat Hindu, the number was raised to 26 from 18 by adding four more in the annexure.
- They were Birajia, Godait, Karmali and Paharia, but Kisan was excluded from the list.
- In 1941 census, Baga, Bedia and Lohra included again taking Kisan in the annexure and number came to 30 which was prevailing till June 2003.
- Kanwar and Kol were added on 8 June 2003 in the annexure and the number of Schedule Tribes came to 32.
LITERACY AND EDUCATION LEVEL :
- The overall literacy rate among the STs has increased from 27.5 percent at 1991 census to 40.7 percent at 2001 census.
- Despite this improvement, the literacy rate among the tribes is much below in comparison to that of all STs at the national level (47.1 percent).
- Among the numerically larger tribes, Oraon and Kharia have more than half of the population in the age of seven years and above are literates while Munda have the literacy rate almost equal to that of all STs at the national level.
TRIBAL FESTIVALS IN JHARKHAND :
- People worshiping under holy sarna tree on the occasion of sarhul in outskirts of Ranchi, Jharkhand.
- Sarhul is a spring festival celebrated when the Saal trees get new flowers on their branches.
- It is a worship of the village deity who is considered to be the protector of the tribes.
- People sing and dance when the new flowers appear. The deities are worshiped with saal flowers.
Baha Parab :
- Baha parab is spring festival of Ho, Munda and Santal
- Baha means flower in Munda languages. People worship Marang buru in jaherthan or sacred grove.
Mage Porob :
- Mage Porob is the principal festival celebrated among the Ho people of eastern
- It is also celebrated by the Munda people, though followers of Birsa Dharam, a new religion based on traditional Munda spirituality and religion, do not celebrate Mage Porob, despite the fact that they celebrate other traditional Munda festivals.
SYLLABUS : PRELIMS; TRIBES IN NEWS