• According to a recent research one in two tuberculosis patients either has diabetes or pre­diabetes, that is every other TB patient has some sort of glucose metabolism disorder.

About TB:

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain.
  • Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.
  • As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease.
  • If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

Spread of TB:

  • TB bacteria spread through the air from one person to another.
  • When a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, speaks, or sings, TB bacteria can get into the air.
  • People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.
  • When a person breathes in TB bacteria, the bacteria can settle in the lungs and begin to grow.
  • From there, they can move through the blood to other parts of the body, such as the kidney, spine, and brain.
  • TB disease in the lungs or throat can be infectious.
  • This means that the bacteria can spread to other people.
  • TB in other parts of the body, such as the kidney or spine, is usually not infectious.
  • People with TB disease are most likely to spread it to people they spend time with every day.
  • This includes family members, friends, and coworkers or schoolmates.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Symptoms of TB disease depend on where in the body the TB bacteria are growing.
  • TB bacteria usually grow in the lungs (pulmonary TB). TB disease in the lungs may cause symptoms such as:

  • a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer
  • pain in the chest
  • coughing up blood or sputum (phlegm from deep inside the lungs)

Other symptoms of TB disease are

  • weakness or fatigue
  • weight loss
  • no appetite
  • chills
  • fever
  • sweating at night

Symptoms of TB disease in other parts of the body depend on the area affected.

People who have latent TB infection

  • do not feel sick,
  • do not have any symptoms, and
  • cannot spread TB to others.

Syllabus: Prelims