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  • A video that supposedly shows actress Rashmika Mandanna entering an elevator has ignited a firestorm of controversy on the internet.

  • What initially appears as genuine is, in fact, a ‘deepfake’ of the actress.
  • The original video features a British Indian girl, Zara Patel, and her face was morphed to insert Mandana’s face instead.

What Are Deepfakes?

  • Deepfake is a digital method where users can replace one person’s likeness convincingly with that of another using AI Techonology.
  • A deepfake can be a video, audio recording, or image using deep learning algorithms that makes it appear that a person is saying or doing something that they are not.

How Are Deepfakes Created?

  • Deepfakes are generated through a process known as generative adversarial networks (GANs), which involve two neural networks competing against each other.
  • One network which is known as the generator, creates images or videos that look as real as possible.
  • The other is known as discriminator which tries to determine whether the content is genuine or produced by the generator learns to produce fakes that are convincing not only for the discriminator but also for humans.

How To Spot Deepfakes?  

Here are some ways on how to spot deepfakes:

Inconsistencies in Blinking and Facial Expressions:

  • Humans typically blink in a certain pattern.
  • In deepfake videos, the blinking and facial expressions have inconsistencies.

Lip Sync Issues:

  • In some deepfakes, the movement of the mouth may not perfectly sync with the spoken words.

Unnatural Skin or Lighting:

  • Another sign of a deepfake can be found in the portrayal of skin, which might appear too smooth or fail to reflect light properly.
  • Make sure that the shadows and reflections are consistent with the environment.

Inconsistent or Warped Backgrounds:

  • Backgrounds in deepfake videos may exhibit distortions, warping, or flickering.

Audiovisual Mismatch:

  • In deepfakes where audio has been manipulated as well, there can be a disconnect between the intonation, rhythm, or quality of the voice and the person supposedly speaking.

Check face and hair:

  • Look for face or hair to see if there are oddities.
  • There might be blending issues where the fake face and the real head don’t match.

Abnormal Body Proportions or Movements:

  • If the head and body seem mismatched in terms of size or lighting, or if movements seem unnatural or jerky, this can indicate a deepfake.

Digital Noise and Compression:

  • Deepfakes may either have too much digital noise or an absence of it compared to the rest of the video.

Law against Deepfakes in India:

  • In case of deepfake crimes, that involve capturing, publishing, or transmitting a person’s images in mass media, violating their privacy section 66E of the IT Act of 2000 is applicable.
  • This offense is punishable with imprisonment of up to three years or a fine of up to Rs. 2 lakh.

Syllabus: Prelims

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